RNA-seq Data Resource

Deep sequenced mRNAs and small noncoding RNAs from 16 brain regions of chimpanzees and rhesus macaques, and compared to the complementary human BrainSpan dataset. Transcriptional profiles come from 247 tissue samples representing hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, mediodorsal nucleus of thalamus, cerebellar cortex, and 11 areas of the neocortex from six humans, five chimpanzees, and five macaques.

Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) brain samples were collected postmortem from five adult specimens (23 Y female, 31 Y female, 31 Y male, 27 Y male, 23 Y male). Brain specimens were obtained from the Alamogordo Primate Facility (Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, USA). All chimpanzees suffered sudden death with no prolonged agonal state and for reasons other than their participation in this study, and without any relation to the tissue used.

Molecular and cellular reorganization of neural circuits in the human lineage. Sousa AMM, Zhu Y, Raghanti MA, Kitchen RR, Onorati M, Tebbenkamp ATN, Stutz B, Meyer KA, Li M, Kawasawa YI, Liu F, Perez RG, Mele M, Carvalho T, Skarica M, Gulden FO, Pletikos M, Shibata A, Stephenson AR, Edler MK, Ely JJ, Elsworth JD, Horvath TL, Hof PR, Hyde TM, Kleinman JE, Weinberger DR, Reimers M, Lifton RP, Mane SM, Noonan JP, State MW, Lein ES, Knowles JA, Marques-Bonet T, Sherwood CC, Gerstein MB, Sestan N. Science. 2017 Nov 24;358(6366):1027-1032. doi: 10.1126/science.aan3456.


Demarcation of brain regions and neocortical areas of human, chimpanzee, and
rhesus macaque used for transcriptome profiling. (A) Schematic representing the sampled
regions from each brain lobe and non-cortical structures. (B) Schematic shows anatomical
positions of dissections of brain samples in human, chimpanzee, and macaque. MFC – medial
prefrontal cortex; OFC – orbital prefrontal cortex; DFC – dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; VFC –
ventrolateral prefrontal cortex; M1C – primary motor cortex; S1C – primary somatosensory
cortex; IPC – inferior posterior parietal cortex; A1C – primary auditory cortex; STC – superior
temporal cortex; ITC – inferior temporal cortex; V1C – primary visual cortex; HIP –
hippocampus; AMY – amygdala; STR – striatum; MD – mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus;
CBC – cerebellar cortex. Asterisks denote structures that are internal and not visible from the
view shown.

National Chimpanzee Brain Resource
supported by NIH - National Institute of
Neurological Disorders and Stroke

The George Washington University
Georgia State University
Yerkes National Primate Research Center

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