Histological Data

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Description Citation Data

Average microglial densities for the neocortex (NC: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and midtemporal gyrus) and hippocampus (HC: CA1 and CA3) by morphological phenotype (ram: ramified, int: intermediate, amo: amoeboid), and tau-positive microglial densities (PHF1/Iba1-immunoreactive microglia) in aged chimpanzees (37-62 years old).

Microglia changes associated to Alzheimer's disease pathology in aged chimpanzees. Edler MK, Sherwood CC, Meindl RS, Munger EL, Hopkins WD, Ely JJ, Erwin JM, Perl DP, Mufson EJ, Hof PR, Raghanti MA. J Comp Neurol. 2018 Dec 15;526(18):2921-2936. doi: 10.1002/cne.24484

Edler et al. 2018 dataset
Volumes occupied by APP/Aβ (6E10-immunoreactive) plaques and vessels (%), volumes occupied by Aβ42 plaques and vessels (%), and AT8-immunoreactive pretangle, neurofibrillary tangle, and tau neuritic cluster densities (mm3) in the prefrontal cortex (layer III), middle temporal gyrus (layer III), and CA1 and CA3 subfields (pyramidal layer) of the hippocampus in aged chimpanzees (37-62 years).

Aged chimpanzees exhibit pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Edler MK, Sherwood CC, Meindl RS, Hopkins WD, Ely JJ, Erwin JM, Mufson EJ, Hof PR, Raghanti MA. Neurobiol Aging. 2017 Nov;59:107-120. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.07.006. 

Edler et al. 2017 dataset
Total neuron and choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive axon length densities for select regions within the striatum and globus pallidus. Percentage of striatal cholinergic neuron morphological subtypes (unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar). Species included are human, chimpanzee, gorilla, olive baboon, pigtailed macaque, and tufted capuchin. Cholinergic innervation of the basal ganglia in humans and other anthropoid primates. Stephenson AR, Edler MK, Erwin JM, Jacobs B, Hopkins WD, Hof PR, Sherwood CC, Raghanti MA. J Comp Neurol. 2017 Feb 1;525(2):319-332. doi: 10.1002/cne.24067. Stephenson et al. 2017 dataset
Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive axon length density/total neuron densities in select regions of striatum and globus pallidus for human, chimpanzee, gorilla, olive baboon, pigtailed macaque, and capuchin monkey. Human-specific increase of dopaminergic innervation in a striatal region associated with speech and language: A comparative analysis of the primate basal ganglia. Raghanti MA, Edler MK, Stephenson AR, Wilson LJ, Hopkins WD, Ely JJ, Erwin JM, Jacobs B, Hof PR, Sherwood CC. J Comp Neurol. 2016 Jul 1;524(10):2117-29. doi: 10.1002/cne.23937. Raghanti et al. 2016 dataset
Amygdala nuclei volumes and serotonin transporter (SERT)-immunoreactive axon densities of bonobos and chimpanzees. Also included are SERT-immunoreactive axon densities for the middle temporal gyrus and caudate nucleus. Differential serotonergic innervation of the amygdala in bonobos and chimpanzees. Stimpson CD, Barger N, Taglialatela JP, Gendron-Fitzpatrick A, Hof PR, Hopkins WD, Sherwood CC. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2016 Mar;11(3):413-22. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsv128. Stimpson et al. 2016 dataset
Cortical neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive axon and varicosity densities/total neuron densities for pigtailed macaque, moor macaque, olive baboon, squirrel monkey, tufted capuchin, gorilla, chimpanzee, and human. Humans and great apes share increased neocortical neuropeptide Y innervation compared to other haplorhine primates. Raghanti MA, Edler MK, Meindl RS, Sudduth J, Bohush T, Erwin JM, Stimpson CD, Hof PR, Sherwood CC. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 Feb 28;8:101. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00101. Raghanti et al. 2014 dataset
Stereologic estimates of shrinkage-corrected volumes for left insula and its subdivisions (granular, dysgranular, agranular insular cortices). Frontoinsula (FI) is part of agranular insular cortex that is defined by the presence of von Economo neurons. Body mass estimates (Smith and Jungers, 1997) and population group sizes (Nunn and van Schaik, 2001; Nunn, 2002) were collected from previously published literature. A volumetric comparison of the insular cortex and its subregions in primates. Bauernfeind AL, de Sousa AA, Avasthi T, Dobson SD, Raghanti MA, Lewandowski AH, Zilles K, Semendeferi K, Allman JM, Craig AD, Hof PR, Sherwood CC. J Hum Evol. 2013 Apr;64(4):263-79. Bauernfeind et al. 2013 dataset
The density of Von Economo Neurons (VENS) in the anterior cingulate cortex that express activating-transcription factor 3 (ATF3), interleukin 4 receptor (IL4Ra) and neuromedin B (NMB) proteins in humans and great apes.      Biochemical specificity of von Economo neurons in hominoids. Stimpson CD, Tetreault NA, Allman JM, Jacobs B, Butti C, Hof PR, Sherwood CC. Am J Hum Biol. 2011 Jan-Feb;23(1):22-8. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.21135. Stimpson et al. 2011 dataset

Total neuron and length densities of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and serotonin transporter (SERT)-immunoreactive axons in the frontal cortex (areas 4, 9, and 32) of humans, chimpanzees, and moor macaques.

Cortical dopaminergic innervation among humans, chimpanzees, and macaque monkeys: a comparative study. Raghanti MA, Stimpson CD, Marcinkiewicz JL, Erwin JM, Hof PR, Sherwood CC. Neuroscience. 2008 Jul 31;155(1):203-20.

Cholinergic innervation of the frontal cortex: differences among humans, chimpanzees, and macaque monkeys. Raghanti MA, Stimpson CD, Marcinkiewicz JL, Erwin JM, Hof PR, Sherwood CC. J Comp Neurol. 2008 Jan 20;506(3):409-24.

Differences in cortical serotonergic innervation among humans, chimpanzees, and macaque monkeys: a comparative study. Raghanti MA, Stimpson CD, Marcinkiewicz JL, Erwin JM, Hof PR, Sherwood CC. Cereb Cortex. 2008 Mar;18(3):584-97. Epub 2007 Jun 22.

Raghanti et al. 2008 datasets

Stereologic counts of neuron and glial cell densities from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (area 9) layers II/III in 18 species of anthropoid primates.

Evolution of increased glia-neuron ratios in the human frontal cortex. Sherwood CC, Stimpson CD, Raghanti MA, Wildman DE, Uddin M, Grossman LI, Goodman M, Redmond JC, Bonar CJ, Erwin JM, Hof PR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Sep 12;103(37):13606-11. Sherwood et al. 2006 dataset


National Chimpanzee Brain Resoure is supported by NIH - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


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