MRI Datasets for Direct Download

Example of 3.0T MRI scan from adult female
chimpanzee in sample datase

Representative Sample of Adult Chimpanzee 3.0T MRI Scans (5 males, 5 females) - Chimpanzees were MRI scanned during their annual physical examinations following standard procedures designed to minimize stress. The animals were first sedated with ketamine (10 mg/kg) or telazol (3-5mg/kg) and were subsequently anaesthetized with propofol (40–60 mg/(kg/h)). They were then transported to the MRI scanning facility and placed in a supine position in the scanner with their head in a human-head coil. Chimpanzees were scanned using a 3.0T scanner (Siemens Trio, Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Malvern, Pennsylvahttp, USA). T1-weighte images were collected using a three-dimensional gradient echo sequence (pulse repetition = 2300 ms, echo time = 4.4 ms, number of signals averaged = 3, matrix size = 320 x 320, with 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 resolution). If use of these data results in publication, please give reference to the National Chimpanzee Brain Resource (NS092988) in the methods section and the acknowledgements of manuscript. After publication, deposit any derived data to the NCBR Data Repository.

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Representative publications that have used this MRI dataset

  • Bianchi S, Reyes LD, Hopkins WD, Taglialatela JP, Sherwood CC. 2016. Neocortical grey matter distribution underlying voluntary, flexible vocalizations in chimpanzees. Sci Rep, 6: 34733
  • Gómez-Robles A, Hopkins WD, Schapiro SJ, Sherwood CC. 2015. Relaxed genetic control of cortical organization in human brains compared with chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112(48): 14799-804
  • Bogart SL, Bennett AJ, Schapiro SJ, Reamer LA, Hopkins WD. 2014. Different early rearing experiences have long-term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Dev Sci, 17(2): 161-74
  • Gilissen EP, Hopkins WD. 2013. Asymmetries of the parietal operculum in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in relation to handedness for tool use. Cereb Cortex, 23(2): 411-22

Species from top left moving across the row:
squirrel monkey, capuchin monkey, rhesus
macaque, sootey mangabey, baboon, gibbon,
orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, bonobo, human
(Rilling and Insel, 1999).

Comparative Sample of Anthropoid Primate 1.5T MRI Scans - Whole brain MRI scans were collected from 38 living, nonhuman anthropoid primates spanning 10 species. All scans were acquired at 1.5T. Prior to scanning, nonhuman primates were anesthetized with Ketamine (10 mg/kg) and then weighed. Monkeys were scanned in a prone position with a human knee coil, whereas apes were scanned in a supine position using a human head coil. Throughout the scan, nonhuman primates received a continuous IV infusion of propofol (10–20 mg/kg/hr) for anesthesia. Head motion was minimized by stabilizing with foam cushions and elastic straps. T1-weighted images of the entire brain were acquired with a 1·5 Tesla Phillips NT scanner (Philips Medical Systems, The Netherlands) using a gradient-echo protocol with the following parameters: slice thickness=1·2 mm, slice interval=0·6 mm (in most cases), TR=19·0 msec, TE=8·5 msec, number of signals averaged=8, matrix=256_256 pixels. Field of view (FOV) was adjusted to include the entire brain in each subject, and so varied as a function of brain size. Consequently, pixel size ranged from 0·47 mm2 to 0·78 mm2. Scan duration was a function of brain size. Approximate scanning time for monkeys and apes were 40 min and 60 min, respectively. An additional inversion recovery scan was also acquired from a sub-set of animals (see scan parameters in chart).

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Representative publications that have used this MRI dataset

  • Rilling JK and Insel TR. 1998. Evolution of the cerebellum in primates: differences in relative volume among monkeys, apes and humans. Brain Behav Evol 52(6): 308-14
  • Rilling JK and Insel TR. 1999. The primate neocortex in comparative perspective using magnetic resonance imaging. J Hum Evol 37(2): 191-223
  • Rilling JK and Insel TR. 1999. Differential expansion of neural projection systems in primate brain evolution. Neuroreport 10(7): 1453-9
  • Rilling JK and Seligman RA. 2002. A quantitative morphometric comparative analysis of the primate temporal lobe. J Hum Evol 42(5): 505-33
  • Rilling JK. 2006. Human and non-human primate brains: are they allometrically scaled versions of the same design? Evol Anthropol 15: 65-77

Download STL Files of Chimpanzee and Human Brains to Print 3D Models
(click on the images of the brains below to download)


National Chimpanzee Brain Resource
supported by NIH - National Institute of
Neurological Disorders and Stroke

The George Washington University
Georgia State University
Yerkes National Primate Research Center

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